IInstitutional racism, also known as systemic racism, is a form of racism that is embedded in the laws and regulations of a society or an organization. It manifests as discrimination in areas such as criminal justice, employment, housing, health care, education, and political representation.
The term institutional racism was first coined in 1967 by Stokely Carmichael and Charles V. Hamilton in Black Power: The Politics of Liberation.
from Wikipedia® a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
1619 When the ship, “White Lion” with 20-30 enslaved Africans landed on August 1619 at Point Comfort,Virginia Colony it was the start of Institutional Racism in America, which continued for over 400 years.
1662 December 1662, a Virginia law stated “all children shall be held bond or free according to the condition of mother”. It Incentives the Rape of Black women by their White masters.
1682 Virginia law makes interracial marriage punishable by imprisonment.
1731 June 24, 1731 an enslaved man was charged with planning an uprising. Samba a slave was burned alive.
1740 A South Carolina law the “Negro Act” restricted movements of Enslaved people by limiting travel, assemble, to grow food and to learn to read and write.
1775 Lord Dunmore, the royal governor of Virginia, was determined to maintain British rule in the colonies and promised to free those enslaved men of rebel owners who fought for him. On November 7, 1775, he issued Dunmore's Proclamation: "I do hereby further declare all indented servants, Negroes, or others, (appertaining to Rebels,) free, that are able and willing to bear arms, they joining His Majesty's Troops." By December 1775 the British army had 300 enslaved men wearing a military uniform. Sewn-on the breast of the uniform was the inscription "Liberty to Slaves".
1778 Jefferson included a clause in his initial draft of the Declaration of Independence denouncing George III for forcing the slave trade onto the American colonies; this was not included in the final version. In 1778, with Jefferson's leadership, slave importation was banned in Virginia, one of the first jurisdictions worldwide to do so. Jefferson was a lifelong advocate of ending the Atlantic Slave Trade and as president led the effort to make it illegal, signing a law that passed Congress in 1807, shortly before Britain passed a similar law. 1800 Gabriel (1776 – October 10, 1800), today commonly known as Gabriel Prosser, was a literate enslavedblacksmith who planned a large slave rebellion in the Richmond, Virginia area in the summer of 1800. Information regarding the revolt was leaked prior to its execution, and he and twenty-five followers were hanged. Gabriel Prosser's uprising was notable not because of its results—the rebellion was quelled before it could begin—but because of its potential for mass chaos and widespread violence. There were other slave rebellions, but this one "most directly confronted" the Founding Fathers "with the chasm between the ideal of liberty and their messy accommodations to slavery." Virginia and other state legislatures passed restrictions on free blacks, as well as prohibiting the education, assembly, and hiring out of slaves, to restrict their ability and chances to plan similar rebellions. 1808In the early years of the United States, immigration (not counting the enslaved, who were treated as merchandise rather than people) was fewer than 8,000 people a year, including French refugees from the slave revolt in Haiti. Legal importation of enslaved African was prohibited after 1808, though many were smuggled in to sell.1816Negro Fort was a short-lived fortification built by the British in 1814, during the War of 1812, in a remote part of what was at the time Spanish Florida. It was intended to support a never-realized British attack on the U.S. via its southwest border. The fort was destroyed in 1816, while under the command of General Edmund P.Gaines, when a "hot cannon ball" landed in the magazine, destroying the fort. This action is also sometimes referred to as the Battle of Negro Fort (also called the Battle of Prospect Bluff or the Battle of African Fort). The former slaves were not familiar with use of cannons and other heavy munitions, and they were thus unable to defend themselves. 1830 First convened in 1830 the Colored Conventions Movement, or Black Conventions Movement, was a series of national, regional, and state conventions held irregularly during the decades preceding and following the American Civil War. The delegates who attended these conventions consisted of both free and formerly enslaved African Americans including religious leaders, businessmen, politicians, writers, publishers, editors, and abolitionists. The conventions provided "an organizational structure through which black men could maintain a distinct black leadership and pursue black abolitionist goals." 1850The Fugitive Slave Act or Fugitive Slave Law was passed by the United States Congresson September 18, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850 between Southerninterests in slaveryand NorthernFree-Soilers. The Act was one of the most controversial elements of the 1850 compromise and heightened Northern fears of a slave power conspiracy. It required that all escaped slaves, upon capture, be returned to the slaver and that officials and citizens of free states had to cooperate.1863The Emancipation Proclamation, officially Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, during the Civil War. The Proclamation changed the legal status of more than 3.5 million enslaved African Americans in the secessionist Confederate states from enslaved to free. As soon as a slave escaped the control of his or her owner, either by running away across Union lines or through the advance of federal troops, the person was permanently free.